TTUHSC Animal Testing and Animal Welfare
Template Search for Animal Testing Alternatives articles using PubMed
1. From the Libraries' homepage, select PubMed from the Databases tab.
2. Choose "MeSH Database" located on the right side of PubMed's home page. Please see the Libraries' tutorial on searching with MeSH.
3. Additional appropriate terms from the following list can be used to retrieve articles. The * allows you to truncate the terms. For an example, cell* will pick up cell, cells, cellular, etc. Quotes keep the phrase together when it is searched.
|"alternative animal model*"||interactive|
|analges*||isolated (cell, tissue, organ)|
|anesthe*||mannequin* or manikin*|
|"artificial intelligence system*"||plastinat*|
|assay*, technique*, method*||protozoa*|
|"computer aided instruction"||toxicity|
|culture (cell*, tissue*, blood, organ*)||train*, educat*, teach*|
|fish*, cephlopod, amphibian*, reptile*||vivo|
|handl*||welfare, pain, distress, stress, "well being"|
PubMed - Medical Subject Heading terms [MeSH]:
|anesthesia and analgesia||artificial cell|
|animal disease models||artificial intelligence|
|animal housing||biological assay|
|animal model||biological specimen banks|
|animal testing alternatives||cadaver|
|animal use alternatives||cell culture|
|cold shock proteins and peptides||organ culture|
|computer simulation||organ culture techniques|
|controlled environment||organisms category|
|in vitro [publication type]||reptiles|
|interactive tutorial [publication type]||software|
|laboratory animal model||tissue culture techniques|
|laboratory animals||toxicity [subheading or MeSH terms]|
Additional databases may need to be searched for a more in-depth search.
For additional information, please contact email@example.com.
Information Requirements of the Animal Welfare Act
Auth. 9 CFR 2.31 (d)
"[The] IAUCUC shall determine that...
(ii) The principal investigator has considered alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals, and has provided a written narrative description of the methods and sources, e.g., the Animal Welfare Information Center, used to determine that alternatives were not available;
(iii) The principal investigator has provided written assurance that the activities do not unnecessarily duplicate previous experiments."
USDA Regulatory Intent
Final Rules and Regulations
Federal Register Vol. 54, No. 168
Thursday, August 31, 1989
"The principal investigator must provide a written narrative of the sources, such as Biological Abstracts, Index Medicus, The Current Research Information Service (CRIS) and the Animal Welfare Information Center that is operated by the National Agricultural Library. We believe that in fulfilling this requirement Committee members will discuss these efforts with the principal investigator in reviewing the proposed activity. We also believe that considerations of alternatives will be discussed during Committee meetings where proposed activities are presented for approval, and made part of the meeting minutes..."
3 R's of Alternatives
Reduction- Number of animals used
Refinement - techniques and procedures to reduce pain and distress
Replacement - of animal with non-animal techniques or lower organism.
Russell, W.M.W. and R. L. Burch (1959, 1952) The Principles of Humane Experimental Techniques, Universities Federation for Animal Welfare: England, 238p.
AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives
General area of study
Species being used
Organ systems involved
Names of hormones, enzymes, CAS#, trade names, etc.
Prominent authors in field including work published by investigator
How the proposed study is unique
Is the investigator aware of any possible alternatives
Any previous searches conducted - keywords used
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Blvd
Beltsville, MD 20705
Additional Information Resources
|AGRICOLA||MEDLINE/Pubmed Search and Veterinary Information Resources|
|AltBib||NCBI Genetics Databases Search Page|
|Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC)||Ovid MEDLINE|
|ISI Web of Knowledge||TOXNET/Toxline|
Page last updated: March 29, 2011