Faculty & Staff Details
|Name:||Mark Lyte, Ph.D., M.S., MT (ASCP)|
|Bio||Major Findings: The discovery that bacteria can actively respond to neuroendocrine hormones and change both their rate of growth and production of virulence-associated factors. This has led to the establishment and development of the field of microbial endocrinology by Professor Lyte. Microbial endocrinology represents the intersection of neurobiology and microbiology. The demonstration that microorganisms can both synthesize and respond to neuroendocrine hormones provides for a new framework of interkingdom signaling that is at the core of microbial endocrinology with which to investigate how microorganisms interface not only with vertebrates, but also invertebrates and plants.
Previous Grant Support : National Institutes of Health.
Postdoctoral fellowships: 1985 – 1986, Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; 1983 - 1985, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Medical College of Virginia
Ph.D. 1983 Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Departments of Membrane Research and Cell Biology
Thesis: "Modulation of immune responses by lipids."
M.S. 1979 Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
Department of Membrane Research
Thesis: "Cholesteryl-phosphoryl-choline in lipid bilayers."
B.S. 1976 Fairleigh Dickinson University, NJ
Major: Medical Technology
2008 Finalist for the NIH Director’s Pioneer Award.
2002 Joseph Susman Memorial Award for Surgical Infectious Disease Research awarded at the 1st International Meeting of the Surgical Infection Societies of North America and Europe.
1987 University of Wisconsin Research Incentive Program Award
1984-1986 National Institutes of Health Individual Postdoctoral Fellowship Award
1983-1984 National Cancer Institute Training Grant
1979-1983 Weizmann Institute of Science Pre-Doctoral Fellowship
1976 American Society of Clinical Pathology Board Certification in Medical Technology
Microbial endocrinology, an emerging field which seeks to examine the interface between microorganisms and the neuroendocrine system in both health and disease.
1. Lyte, M. and Freestone, P.P.E. (editors). “Microbial Endocrinology: Interkingdom Signaling in Infectious Disease and Health”. 2010, 316 pages. Springer; New York, 316 pages, ISBN:978-1-4419-5573-3.
1. Lyte, M. Probiotics function mechanistically as delivery vehicles for neuroactive
compounds: Microbial endocrinology in the design and use of probiotics. BioEssays, Jul 6. doi: 10.1002/bies.201100024. [Epub ahead of print]
2. Lyte, M. Response to "Pathophysiology and treatment of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome from the perspective of evolutionary medicine". Surgery, 149:461-462, 2011.
3. Bailey, M.T., Dowd, S.E., Galley, J.D., Hufnagle, A.R., Allen, R.G., and Lyte, M. Exposure to a social stressor alters the structure of the intestinal microbiota: Implications for stressor-induced immunomodulation. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 25:397-407, 2011.
4. Pullinger, G.D., van Diemen, P.M., Carnell, S.C., Davies, H. Lyte, M., and Stevens, M.P. 6-Hydroxydopamine-mediated release of norepinephrine increases faecal excretion of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in pigs. Veterinary Research, 41:68-80, 2010.
5. Bailey, M.T., Dowd, S.E., Parry, N.M., Galley, J.D., Schauer, D.B., and Lyte, M. Stressor exposure disrupts commensal microbial populations in the intestines and leads to increased colonization by Citrobacter rodentium. Infection and Immunity, 78:1509-1519, 2010.
6. Lyte, M. Microbial endocrinology as a basis for improved L-DOPA bioavailability in Parkinson's patients treated for Helicobacter pylori. Medical Hypotheses, 74:895-897, 2010.
7. Pullinger, G.D., Carnell, S.C., Sharaff, F.F., van Diemen, P.M., Dziva, F., Morgan, E., Lyte, M., Freestone, P.P., and Stevens, M.P. Norepinephrine augments Salmonella enterica-induced enteritis in a manner associated with increased net replication but independent of the putative adrenergic sensor kinases QseC and QseE. Infection and Immunity 78:372-380, 2010.
8. Lyte, M. The microbial organ in the gut as a driver of homeostasis and disease. Medical Hypotheses, 74:634-638, 2010.
9. Sandrini, S.M., Shergill, R., Woodward, J., Muralikuttan, R., Haigh, R.D., Lyte, M., and Freestone, P.P. Elucidation of the mechanism by which catecholamine stress hormones liberate iron from the innate immune defense proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. Journal of Bacteriology 192:587-594, 2010.
10. Freestone, P.P.E., Al-Dayan, N., and Lyte M (2010) Staphylococci, catecholamine inotropes and hospital –acquired infections. In: Lyte M, Freestone PPE (eds)
Microbial endocrinology: interkingdom signaling in infectious disease and health. Springer, New York, pp 151-166.
11. Lyte M (2010a) Microbial Endocrinology: A Personal Journey. In: Lyte M, Freestone PPE (eds) Microbial endocrinology: interkingdom signaling in infectious disease and health. Springer, New York, pp 1-16
12. Lyte, M. Reciprocal gut-brain evolutionary symbiosis provokes and amplifies the postinjury systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgery, 146:950-954, 2009.
13. Li, W., Lyte, M., Freestone, P.P., Ajmal, A., Colmer-Hamood, J.A. and Hamood, A.N. Norepinephrine represses the expression of toxA and the siderophore genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 299:100-109, 2009.
14. Lyte, M., Gaykema, R.P.A. and Goehler, L.E. Behavior modification of host by microbes. Encyclopedia of Microbiology, 4th edition (Moselio Schaechter, Editor), pages 121-128, Oxford: Elsevier, 2009.
15. Li, W., Dowd, S.E., Scurlock, B., Acosta-Martinez, V. and Lyte, M. Memory and learning behavior in mice is temporally associated with diet-induced alterations in gut bacteria. Physiology and Behavior, 96:557-567, 2009.
16. Freestone, P.P., Haigh, R.D. and Lyte, M. Catecholamine inotrope resuscitation of antibiotic-damaged staphylococci and its blockade by specific receptor antagonists. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 197:1044-1052, 2008.
17. Freestone, P.P. and Lyte, M. Microbial endocrinology: experimental design issues in the study of interkingdom signaling in infectious disease. Advances in Applied Microbiology, 64:75-105, 2008.
18. Freestone, P.P., Sandrini, S.M., Haigh, R.D. and Lyte, M. Microbial endocrinology: How stress influences susceptibility to infection. Trends in Microbiology, 16:55-64, 2008.
19. Goehler, L.E., Park, S.M., Opitz, N., Lyte, M. and Gaykema, R.P. Campylobacter jejuni infection increases anxiety-like behavior in the holeboard: Possible anatomical substrates for viscerosensory modulation of exploratory behavior. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 22:354-366, 2008.
20. Goehler, L.E., Lyte, M. and Gaykema, R.P. Infection-induced viscerosensory signals from the gut enhance anxiety: Implications for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 21:721-726, 2007.
21. Freestone, P.P., Walton, N.J., Haigh, R.D. and Lyte, M. Influence of dietary catechols on the growth of enteropathogenic bacteria. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 119:159-169, 2007
22. Schmidt, L.D., Xie, Y., Lyte, M., Vulchanova, L. and Brown, D.R. Autonomic neurotransmitters modulate immunoglobulin A secretion in porcine colonic mucosa. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 185:20-28, 2007.
23. Freestone, P.P., Haigh, R.D. and Lyte, M. Blockade of catecholamine-induced growth by adrenergic and dopaminergic antagonists in Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia enterocolitica. BMC Microbiology, 7:8, 2007.
24. Freestone, P.P., Haigh, R.D., and Lyte, M. Specificity of catecholamine-induced growth in Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica, and Yersinia enterocolitica. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 269:221-228, 2007.
25. Lyte, M., Li, W., Opitz, N., Gaykema, R.P. and Goehler, L.E. Induction of anxiety-like behavior in mice during the initial stages of infection with the agent of murine colonic hyperplasia Citrobacter rodentium. Physiology and Behavior, 89:350-357, 2006.
26. O’Donnell, P.M., Aviles, H., Lyte, M. and Sonnenfeld, G. Enhancement of in vitro growth of pathogenic bacteria by norepinephrine: importance of inoculum density and role of transferrin. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 72:5097-5099, 2006.
27. Chen, C., Lyte, M, Stevens, M.P., Vulchanova, L., and Brown, D.R. Mucosally-directed adrenergic nerves and sympathomimetic drugs enhance non-intimate adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to porcine cecum and colon. European Journal of Pharmacology, 539:116-124, 2006.
28. Lyte, M., Opitz, N., Goehler, L.E., Gaykema, R.P. and Overmier, J.B. Recommended housing conditions and test procedures can interact to obscure a significant experimental effect. Behavior Research Methods, 37:651-6, 2005.
29. Goehler, L.E., Gaykema, R.P.A., Opitz, N., Reddaway, R., Badr, N. and Lyte, M. Activation in vagal afferents and central autonomic pathways: early responses to intestinal infection with Campylobacter jejuni. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 19:334-344, 2005.
30. Green, B.T., Lyte, M., Chen, C., Xie, Y., Casey, M.A., Kulkarni-Narla, A. and Brown, D.R. Adrenergic modulation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to the porcine colonic mucosa. American Journal of Physiology – Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology, 287:1238-1246, 2004.
31. Vlisidou, I., Lyte, M., van Diemen, P.M., Hawes, P., Monaghan, P., Wallis, T.S. and Stevens, M.P. The neuroendocrine stress hormone norepinephrine augments Escherichia coli O157:H7-induced enteritis and adherence in a bovine ligated ileal loop model of infection. Infection and Immunity, 72:5446-5451, 2004.
32. Lyte, M. Opitz, N., Goehler, L.E., Gaykema, R.P. and Overmier, J.B. Recommended housing conditions and test procedures can interact to obscure a significant experimental effect. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 37:651-656, 2005.
33. Reissbrodt, R., Raßbach, A., Burghardt, B., Rienäcker, Mietke, H., Schleif, J., Tschäpe, H., Lyte, M. and Williams, P.H. Assessment of a new selective chromogenic Bacillus cereus group plating medium, and use of enterobacterial autoinducer of growth for cultural identification of Bacillus species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 42:3795-3798, 2004.
34. Lyte, M. The biogenic amine tyramine modulates adherence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to intestinal mucosa, Journal of Food Protection, 67:878-883, 2004.
35. Lyte, M. Microbial endocrinology and infectious disease in the 21st century. Trends in Microbiology, 12:14-20, 2004.
36. Gaykema, R.P.A., Goehler, L.E., and Lyte, M. Brain response to cecal infection with Campylobacter jejuni: analysis with Fos immunohistochemistry. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 18:238-245, 2004.
37. Green, B.T., Lyte, M., Kulkarni-Narla, A. and Brown, D.R. Neuromodulation of enteropathogen internalization in Peyer’s patches from porcine jejunum. Journal of Neuroimmunology, 141:74-82, 2003.
38. Chen, C., Brown, B.R., Xie, Y., Green, B.T. and Lyte, M. Catecholamines modulate Escherichia coli O157:H7 adherence to murine cecal mucosa. Shock 20:183-188, 2003.
39. Lyte, M., Neal, C.P., Olson, B.A., Parkin, J.L., Freestone, P.P.E., Haigh, R.D., Bayston, R. and Williams, P.H. Stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis growth and biofilm formation by catecholamine inotropes. The Lancet 361:130-135, 2003.
40. Freestone, P.P.E., Haigh, R.D., Williams, P.H. and Lyte, M. Involvement of enterobactin in norepinephrine-mediated iron supply from transferrin to enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 222:39-43, 2003.
41. Freestone, P.P.E., Williams, P.H., Haigh, R.D., Maggs, A.F., Neal, C.P. and Lyte, M. Growth stimulation of intestinal commensal Escherichia coli by catecholamine hormones: A possible contributory factor in the development of trauma-induced sepsis. Shock, 18:465-470, 2002.
42. Reissbrodt, R., Rienaecker, I., Romanova, J.M., Freestone, P.P.E., Haigh, R.D., Lyte, M., Tschäpe, H. and Williams, P.H. Resuscitation of Salmonella Typhimurium and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli from the viable but non-culturable state by heat stable enterobacterial autoinducer. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68:4788-4494, 2002.
43. Morken, J.J., Warren, K.U., Xie, Y., Rodriguez, J.L., and Lyte, M. Epinephrine as a mediator of pulmonary neutrophil sequestration. Shock 18:46-50, 2002.
44. Muehlstedt, S.G., Richardson, C.J., Lyte, M. and Rodriguez, J.L. Systemic and pulmonary effector cell function after injury. Critical Care Medicine 30:1322-1326, 2002.
45. Muehlstedt, S.G., Lyte, M. and Rodriguez, J.L. Increased IL-10 production and HLA-DR suppression in the lungs of injured patients precede the development of nosocomial pneumonia. Shock 17:443-450, 2002.
46. Neal, C.P., Freestone, P.P.E., Maggs, A.F., Haigh, R.D., Williams, P.H. and Lyte, M. Catecholamine inotropes as growth factors for Staphylococcus epidermidis and other coagulase-negative staphylococci. FEMS Microbiology Letters 194:163-169, 2001.
47. Muehlstedt, S.G., Richardson, C.J., West, M.A., Lyte, M., Rodriguez, J.L. Cytokines and the pathogenesis of nosocomial pneumonia. Surgery 130:602-611, 2001.
48. Freestone, P.P.E., Lyte, M., Neal, C.P., Maggs, A.F., Haigh, R.D. and Williams, P.H. The Mammalian neuroendocrine hormone norepinephrine supplies iron for bacterial growth in the presence of transferrin or lactoferrin. Journal of Bacteriology 182:6091-6098, 2000.
49. Freestone, P.P.E. , Haigh, R.D., Williams, P.H. and LYTE, M. Stimulation of bacterial growth by heat-stable, norepinephrine-induced autoinducers. FEMS Microbiology Letters 172:53-60, 1999.
50. Bailey, M.T., Karaszewski, J.W., Lubach, G.R., Coe, C.L. and Lyte, M. In vivo adaptation of attenuated Salmonella typhimurium results in increased growth upon exposure to norepinephrine. Physiology and Behavior 67:359-364, 1999.
51. Dréau, D., Sonnenfeld, G., Fowler, N., Morton, D.S. and Lyte, M. Effect of social conflict on immune responses and Escherichia coli growth within peritoneal implant chambers in mice. Physiology and Behavior 67:133-140, 1999.
52. Lyte, M., Varcoe, J.J. and Bailey, M.T. Anxiogenic effect of subclinical infection in mice in the absence of overt immune activation. Physiology and Behavior 65:63-68, 1998.
53. Lyte, M. Induction of gram-negative bacterial growth by neurochemical containing banana (Musa x paradisiaca) extracts. FEMS Microbiology Letters 154:245-250, 1997.
54. Lyte, M. and Bailey, M.T. Neuroendocrine-bacterial interactions in a neurotoxin-induced model of trauma. Journal of Surgical Research 70:195-201, 1997.
55. Lyte, M., Erickson, A.K., Arulanandam, B.P., Frank, C.D., Crawford, M.A. and Francis, D.H. Norepinephrine-induced expression of the K99 pilus adhesin of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Biochemical and Biophysical Communications 232:682-686, 1997.
56. Lyte, M. and Nguyen, K.T. Alteration of Escherichia coli O157:H7 growth and molecular fingerprint by the neuroendocrine hormone noradrenaline. Microbios 89:197-213, 1997.
57. Dréau, D., Lyte, M., Fowler, N., Morton, D. and Sonnenfeld, G. Social conflict stress, immune responses, and resistance to infection. In: The Immune Consequences of Trauma, Shock and Sepsis (4th International Congress on The Immune Consequences of Trauma, Shock and Sepsis: Mechanisms and Therapeutic Approaches), Faust, E., ed., Monduzzi Editore, pp. 119-122, 1997.
58. Lyte, M., Arulanandam, B., Nguyen, K., Frank, C., Erickson, A. and Francis, D. Norepinephrine induced growth and expression of virulence factors in enterotoxigenic and enterhemorrhagic strains of Escherichia coli. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 412:331-339, 1997.
59. Lyte, M. and Nguyen, K.T. Norepinephrine-induced growth and alteration of molecular fingerprints in Escherichia coli O157:H7. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 412:265-267, 1997.
60. Lyte, M., Arulanandam, B.P. and Frank, C.D. Production of Shiga-like toxins by Escherichia coli O157:H7 can be influenced by the neuroendocrine hormone norepinephrine. Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 128:392-398, 1996.
61. Lyte, M., Frank, C.D. and Green, B.T. Production of an autoinducer of growth by norepinephrine cultured Escherichia coli O157:H7. FEMS Microbiology Letters 139:155-160, 1996.
62. Lyte, M. The role of microbial endocrinology in infectious disease. Journal of Endocrinology 137:343-345, 1993.
63. Lyte, M. and Ernst, S. Alpha and beta adrenergic receptor involvement in catecholamine-induced growth of gram-negative bacteria. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 190:447-452, 1993.
64. Salak, J.L., McGlone, J.J. and Lyte, M. The effects of in vitro ACTH, cortisol and human recombinant interleukin-2 on porcine neutrophil migration and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 39:327-337, 1993.
65. Lyte, M. and Ernst, S. Catecholamine induced growth of gram-negative bacteria. Life Sciences 50:203-212, 1992.
66. Lyte, M. Role of catecholamines in gram-negative sepsis. Medical Hypotheses 37:255-258, 1992.
67. Lyte, M., Ernst, S., Driemeyer, J. and Baissa, B. Strain specific enhancement of splenic T cell mitogenesis and macrophage phagocytosis following peripheral axotomy. Journal of Neuroimmunology 31:1-8, 1991.
68. Lyte, M., Gannon, J.E. and O'Clock, G.D., Jr. Effects of in vitro electrical stimulation on enhancement and suppression of malignant lymphoma cell proliferation. Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83:116-119, 1991.
69. Clock, G.D., Jr., Hybertson, R.L., Gannon, J.E. and Lyte, M. Identification, localization and analysis of contamination problems associated with cell/tissue preparation, stimulation and measurement techniques. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 27:1-7, 1991.
70. Lyte, M., Nelson, S.G. and Baissa, B. Examination of the neuroendocrine basis for the social conflict induced enhancement of immunity in mice. Physiology and Behavior 48:685-691, 1990.
71. Lyte, M., Nelson, S.G. and Thompson, M.L. Innate and adaptive immune responses in a social conflict paradigm. Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology 57:137-147, 1990.
72. Lyte, M. Modulation of human lymphocyte mitogen responsiveness and interleukin-2 production by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology 32:91-95, 1990.
73. Lyte, M. In vitro production of Interleukin-2 by lymphocytes in whole blood and isolated culture. Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Immunology 26:189-193, 1988.
74. Lyte, M. Generation and measurement of Interleukin-1, Interleukin-2 and mitogen levels in small volumes of blood. Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis 1:83-88 1987.
75. Lyte, M., Blanton, R.H., Myers, M.J. and Bick, P.H. Effect of in vivo administration of the carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene on Interleukin-2 and Interleukin-3 production. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 9:307-312, 1987.
76. Lysle, D., Lyte, M. Fowler, H. and Rabin, B.S. Shock-induced immuno-modulation: Suppression, habituation, and recovery. Life Sciences 41:1805-1814, 1987.
77. Rabin, B.S., Lyte, M. and Hamill, E. The influence of mouse strain and housing on the immune response. Journal of Neuroimmunology 17:11-16, 1987.
78. Gould, C.L., Lyte, M., Williams, J., Mandel, A.D. and Sonnenfeld, G. Inhibited interferon-gamma but normal interleukin-3 production in rats flown on the space shuttle. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 58:983-986, 1987.
79. Rabin, B.S., Lyte, M., Epstein, L.H. and Caggiula, A.R. Alteration of immune competency by number of mice housed per cage. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 496:492-500, 1987.
80. Rabinowich, H., Lyte, M., Steiner, Z., Klajman, A. and Shinitzky, M. Augmentation of mitogen responsiveness in the aged by a special lipid diet AL721. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 40:131-138, 1987.
81. Ganguli, R., Rabin, B.S., Kelly, R.H., Lyte, M. and Ragu, U. Clinical and laboratory evidence of autoimmunity in acute schizophrenia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 496:676-685, 1987.
82. Lyte, M. Regulation of Interleukin-1 production in murine macrophages and human monocytes by a normal physiological constituent. Life Sciences 38:1163-1170, 1986.
83. Lyte, M. and Bick, P.H. Modulation of Interleukin-1 production by macrophages following benzo(a)pyrene exposure. International Journal of Immunopharmacology 8:377-381, 1986.
84. Blanton, R.H., Lyte, M., Myers, M.J. and Bick, P.H. Immunomodulation by polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Cancer Research 46:2735-2739, 1986.
85. Lyte, M. and Bick, P.H. Differential immunotoxic effects of the environmental pollutant benzo(a)pyrene in young and aged mice. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development 30:333-341, 1985.
86. Lyte, M. and Shinitzky, M. A special lipid mixture for membrane fluidization. Biochimica Biophysica Acta 812:133-138, 1985.
87. Yatvin, M.B., Vorphal, J.W., Gould, M.N. and Lyte, M. The effects of membrane modification and hyperthermia on the survival of P-388 and V-79 cells. European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology 19:1247-1253, 1983.
88. Lyte, M. Modulation and restoration of immune function by lipids. Ph.D. thesis: Weizmann Institute of Science, July 1983.
89. Shinitzky, M., Lyte, M., Heron, D.S. and Samuel, D. Intervention in membrane aging - the development and application of Active Lipid. In: Proceedings of the FIBER - University of Boston Meeting on Intervention in the Aging Process. (W. Regelson, Ed.), 3, 175-187, 1983, Alan Liss Press.
90. Lyte, M. and Shinitzky, M. Cholesteryl-phosphoryl-choline in lipid bilayers. Chemistry and Physics of Lipids 24:45-55, 1979.