Drug Information Center – Forum
Volume 1, Issue 2
Thursday, October 5, 2000
- Cindy Johnson
- Heather Johnson
- Susan Nguyen
- Nguyet Dang
- Jimmy Tran
- Ana Mata
- Chris Ellison
- Cetrotide: 08-11-00
- Approved for prevention of premature LH surges in women undergoing controlled ovarian
- Manufactured by Asta Medica Inc.
- Vivelle: 08-11-00
- Indications: Used to prevent postmenopausal osteoporosis
- Manufactured by Novogyne
- Amphotericin B (AmBisome): 08-01-00
- Indications: treatment of cryptococcal meningitis in HIV-infected patients
- Manufactured by Fujisawa Healthcare/Gilead Sciences'
- Ciprofloxacin: 09-01-00
- Indications : For post exposure inhalation of anthrax, which is most likely to occur
during a bioterrorist attack.
- Manufactured by Bayer
- Lot Number 89335
- Solvay Pharmaceuticals Inc.
- Dissoulution Failure – only had 18 months stability
- New Life Colostrum Cream
- Lot Number A2106990
- Microbial Contamination
- Marquee Brand Menthol Throat Spray
- Lot Number 9JV0178
- Perrigo Co
- Missing Tamper Resistant Protection
Update on preventing vertical transmission of HIV type 1
Fonda Chen, Alice K. Pau, and Stephen C. Piscitelli
Am J Health-Syst Pharm Sept 1, 2000; 57:1616-1623
There are numerous clinical trials underway studying the prevention of vertical transmission
of HIV-1, which occurs in utero, intrapartum, and postpartum. The PACTG 076 trial,
a landmark study for prevention of perinatal transmission using zidovudine and nevirapine,
and HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) have dramatically changed the outcomes
in percentage of transmissions from mother to baby. However, more affordable and less
complex regimens are still in need, especially for the developing nations most afflicted
by perinatal HIV-1. This article lists several selected studies of antiretroviral
therapy for the prevention of this virus transmission in both the United States and
other countries as study sites. The dosages and therapies are divided up between antepartum,
intrapartum, and postpartum for both mother and newborn. The rate of vertical transmission
has fallen from over 20% to 3-10% since these studies began. Much progress has been
made yet the efforts continue for the search for relatively simple, inexpensive, and
Duration of Symptoms and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with the Common Treated
with Zinc Acetate
Ananda S. Prasad, MD, PhD; James T. Fitzgerald, PhD; Bin Bao, MD, PhD; Frances W.J.
Beck, PhD; and Pranatharthi H. Chandrasekar, MD
Annals of Internal Medicine August 15, 2000; Vol.133:245-252.
This study was done at the Detroit Medical Center to test the efficacy of zinc acetate
lozenges in reducing the duration of symptoms of the common cold. The trial was randomized,
double blind, and placebo-controlled. Forty-eight subjects were given 12.8mg of zinc
acetate or placebo every two to three hours for as long as they had cold symptoms.
The results were compiled from the patients' daily documentation of the severity of
their cold symptoms. Compared to the placebo group, the treatment group had reduced
severity and a shorter duration of cold symptoms. However, the differences between
proinflammatory cytokine levels in zinc versus placebo subjects were not significant.
Determination of Up-to-Date Vaccination Status for Preschool-Aged Children: How Accurate
Is Manual Assessment Conducted by Paraprofessional Staff?
Abigail Shefer, MD; Elisa Webb, MSN; and Terri Wilmoth, RN, MPH
Pediatrics September 2000; Vol. 106(3): 493-496.
Over the years, the increased use of vaccination has led to a decrease in vaccine-preventable
diseases in the United States. However, more than 1 million preschool-aged children
still remain underimmunized and at risk for disease. One of the reasons for this is
that health care providers sometimes do not accurately identify which children are
in need of vaccination. Previous studies have found a low accuracy rate when nurses
manually determine a child's immunization status from the child's personal vaccination
record. This study's objective was to determine the accuracy of immunization status
assessment conducted manually by paraprofessional staff in the Women, Infants, and
Children (WIC) program, as compared to a computerized assessment based on actual immunization
data contained in the WIC database. The subjects were children 32 months old or younger,
seen during a 1 year time period at one of 12 WIC sites in San Diego, California.
This study found that the children's vaccination status was assessed correctly 80%
of the time. The authors concluded that manual immunization assessment is specific
but only moderately sensitive in identifying an underimmunized child, thus many underimmunized
children are missed. The authors recommend that computer-assisted assessment be used
to reduce error.
Failure To Develop HIV Infection After Receipt of HIV-Contaminated Blood and Postexposure
Terese L. Katzenstein, MD, PhD; Ebbe Dickmeiss, MD, DrMedSci; Hassan
Aladdin, MSc; et al.
Annals of Internal Medicine July 4 2000; Vol.133:31-34.
The screening of donated blood for the HIV-antibody has greatly reduced the risk for
HIV transmission from blood transfusions. However, due to an estimated three week
window period between HIV infection and development of HIV antibodies, some HIV-infected
blood is not detected in this screening process. In this case report, a 13 year old
underwent transfusion with HIV RNA-positive blood. Two days after the transfusion,
the blood was discovered to be infected with HIV, and the patient was started on postexposure
prophylactic antiretroviral therapy which was continued for 9 months. The patient
was repeatedly tested for HIV RNA, HIV DNA, HIV antibody, and HIV p24 antigen, and
all tests were found to be negative.
Association Between Administration of Hepatitis B Vaccine at Birth and Completion
of the Hepatitis B and 4:3:1:3 Vaccine Series
Hussain R. Yusuf, MBBS, MPH; Danni Daniels, MS; Phil Smith, PhD; Victor Coronado,
MD, MPH; Lance Rodewald, MD
The Journal of the American Medical Association August 23/30, 2000; Vol. 284, No. 8: 978-983.
This study was done to assess whether there is a greater likelihood of a child completing
the entire 3 dose hepatitis B vaccination series as well as the 4:3:1:3 (diphtheria,
tetanus, pertussis, polio, measles, and Haemophilus influenzae type b) vaccination series if the child receives the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine
within 7 days of birth. Data from the 1998 National Immunization Survey, which consisted
of a telephone survey of parents in the United States and a mail survey of their vaccination
providers, was used. The study found that 89.6% of children aged 19 to 35 months in
1998 received 3 or more doses of Hepatitis B vaccine and 79.9% completed the 4:3:1:3
vaccine series. Children who received the first hepatitis B vaccine dose within 7
days of birth were much more likely to complete both vaccine series than children
who did not.
H. Glenn Anderson, Jr Pharm.D.
Ann L. McIlvain Pharm.D
Texas Tech University HSC
Drug Information Center